
Digital Library of the
European Council for Modelling and Simulation 
Title: 
Computation With Information Described In Natural Language The Concept Of GeneralizedConstraintBased Computation 
Authors: 
Lotfi
A. Zadeh 
Published in: 
(2006).ECMS
2006 Proceedings edited by: W. Borutzky, A. Orsoni, R. Zobel. European
Council for Modeling and Simulation. doi:10.7148/2006 ISBN:
0955301807 20^{th}
European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, Bonn,
May 2831, 2006 
Citation
format: 
Zadeh, L. A. (2006). Computation With
Information Described In Natural Language The Concept Of
GeneralizedConstraintBased Computation. ECMS 2006 Proceedings edited by: W.
Borutzky, A. Orsoni, R. Zobel (pp. 56). European
Council for Modeling and Simulation. doi:10.7148/20060005 
DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7148/20060005 
Abstract: 
What is computation with information
described in natural language? Here are simple examples. I am planning to
drive from Berkeley to Santa Barbara, with stopover for lunch in Monterey. It
is about 10 am. It will probably take me about two hours to get to Monterey
and about an hour to have lunch. From Monterey, it will probably take me
about five hours to get to Santa Barbara. What is the probability that I will
arrive in Santa Barbara before about six pm? Another simple example: A box
contains about twenty balls of various sizes. Most are large. What is the number of small balls? What
is the probability that a ball drawn at random is neither small nor large?
Another example: A function, f, from reals to reals is described as: If
X is small then Y is small; if X is medium then Y is
large; if X is large then Y is small. What is the maximum of f?
Another example: Usually the temperature is not very low, and usually the
temperature is not very high. What is the average temperature? Another
example: Usually most United Airlines flights from San Francisco leave on
time. What is the probability that my flight will be delayed? 
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